Corticosteroid use in asthma

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  • Citation tools Download this article to citation manager Crawshaw Dickon P , Helliwell Philip S , Hensor Elizabeth M A , Hay Elaine M , Aldous Simon J , Conaghan Philip G et al. Exercise therapy after corticosteroid injection for moderate to severe shoulder pain: large pragmatic randomised trial BMJ 2010; 340 :c3037
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    The cystic larvae of Taenia solium commonly infect the human nervous system, resulting in neurocysticercosis, a major contributor to seizure disorders in most of the world. Inflammation around the parasites is a hallmark of neurocysticercosis pathophysiology. Although mechanisms regulating this inflammation are poorly understood, anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly corticosteroids, have been long used alone or with anthelmintics to manage disease and limit neurological complications and perhaps damage to neural tissues. Only scarce controlled data exist to determine when and what type of corticosteroids and the treatment regime to use. This article revisits the mechanisms of action, rationale, evidence of benefit, safety and problems of corticosteroids in the context of neurocysticercosis, as well as alternative anti-inflammatory strategies to limit the damage caused by inflammation in the CNS.

    Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

    Corticosteroid use in asthma

    corticosteroid use in asthma


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