By October 1945, DDT was available for public sale in the United States, used both as an agricultural pesticide and as a household insecticide.  Although its use was promoted by government and the agricultural industry, US scientists such as FDA pharmacologist Herbert O. Calvery expressed concern over possible hazards associated with DDT as early as 1944.    In 1947, Dr. Bradbury Robinson , a physician and nutritionist practicing in St. Louis, Michigan , warned of the dangers of using the pesticide DDT in agriculture. DDT had been researched and manufactured in St. Louis by the Michigan Chemical Corporation , later purchased by Velsicol Chemical Corporation ,  and had become an important part of the local economy.  Citing research performed by Michigan State University  in 1946, Robinson, a past president of the local Conservation Club,  opined that:
Thalidomide has been used by Brazilian physicians as the drug of choice for the treatment of severe ENL since 1965, and by 1996, at least 33 cases of thalidomide embryopathy were recorded in people born in Brazil after 1965.  Since 1994, the production, dispensing, and prescription of thalidomide have been strictly controlled, requiring women to use two forms of birth control and submit to regular pregnancy tests. Despite this, cases of thalidomide embryopathy continue,   with at least 100 cases identified in Brazil between 2005 and 2010.  million thalidomide pills were distributed throughout Brazil in this time period, largely to poor Brazilians in areas with poor access to healthcare, and these cases have occurred despite the controls.